Fagkonferanse – Årskonferanse Oslo 8–9. juni

Velkommen til fagkonferanse om informert samtykke, profesjon og etikk i Oslo 8. og 9 juni. Forskerkonferansen for teori og praksis om informert samtykke er samkjørt med Årskonferansen for Profesjonsetisk nettverk i Norge. Profesjonsetisk nettverk har egen WS fredag med invitasjon til artikler som kan inngå i et temanummer i Professions and Professionalism 

The Theory and Practice of
Informed Consent, Profession and Ethics


We bring together leading experts to discuss ethical issues concerning the role of informed consent in research and in the professions.

Sted: Oslo and Akershus University College. Room: Pilestredet 48-P173.

Dato og tid: torsdag 8. juni 2017 kl. 09.45 - fredag 9. juni kl. 16:30

Informed consent, which is shorthand for informed, voluntary, and decisionally-capacitated consent, is required across a wide swath of human activities, including employment, medical care, research, professional relationships, and so forth. Underlying this requirement is the value placed in liberal societies on allowing for the pursuit of rival conceptions of the good life, thereby respecting the autonomy of individuals to make decisions in matters that concern their own welfare. But what are the contents and normative status of this requirement? Why should we require informed consent when it comes at a cost to the individual's welfare? What are barriers to informed consent?

The conference is part of a four-year project on informed consent conducted by Edmund Henden, Centre for the study of professions, Oslo and Akershus University College. It is funded by The Research Council of Norway. The conference is organized by the Centre for the Study of Professions (SPS) in co-operation with the Norwegian Network for Professional Ethics.

NOTE:  The workshop is open to the public. No registration is required.

A free lunch day 2 requires registration here:


Thursday 8. June 2017:

9.55. Welcome and Coffee/Tea.

10.00-11.00. Louis Charland (University of Western Ontario): Informed Consent to Medical Aid in Dying: Looking at Anorexia Nervosa. Commentator: Anne Rausdøl (Diakonhjemmet University College).

11.10-12.10. Hallvard Lillehammer (Birkbeck, University of London): Autonomy, Consent and the ‘Non-Ideal’ Case. Commentator: Bjørn Hofmann (University of Oslo).

12.10-13.15. Lunch.

13.15-14.15. Edmund Henden (Oslo and Akershus University College) and Kristine Bærøe (University of Bergen): Addiction and Informed Consent. Commentator: Elleke G. M. Landweer (University of Oslo).

14.20-15.20. Steven Edwards (Swansea University): Problematising Consent in Research. Commentator: Kristine Bærøe (University of Bergen).

15.20-15.30. Coffee

15.30-16.30. Neil Manson (Lancaster University): Against Meta-Consent. Commentator: Jakob Elster (University of Oslo).

Friday 9. June 2017:

09.00-09.30. Annual Business meeting, Network for Professional Ethics, Norway

10.00-11.00. Henriette Sinding Aasen (University of Bergen): Children, Informed Consent and Healthcare Decisions - a Legal Perspective. Commentator: Eirik Christopher Gundersen (Oslo and Akershus University College).

11.10-12.10. Tor Halvorsen (University of Bergen): Professionalization and Ethical Challenges in a Global Perspective. Commentator: Tom Skauge, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences.

12.15-13.00. Lunch.

Session 1: Kl. 13.00-16.30.

On Theories and Practice of Informed Consent, Profession, Professionalization and Codes of Ethics.

Rom: Pilestredet 48-P476.

13.00 Profession and Code of Ethics – An introduction, Tom Skauge, leader of Network for Professional Ethics, Norway

13.15 Conflicting Professional Duties and Blameworthiness, Andreas Eriksen

13.45 Informed Consent and Intentional Nondisclosure in Japan, – A Kantian Approach. Jon V. Hugaas, Western Norway University of Applied Science

14.15 Break

14.30 Professional Codes as Moralistic Nudging, By Ainar Petersen Miyata

15.00 ”Klar til strid!” - uformelle normer og profesjonsidentitet blant norske og svenske soldater med kamperfaring fra Afghanistan. Gudmund Waaler

15.30 Title: “The Core Curriculum – Interpretations and Stories About an Essential Document for the Norwegian School”, Kristin Lofthus Hope, Western Norway University of Applied Science

16.00 End of session

Papers to session 1:
Medlemmer i Profesjonsetisk nettverk kan laste ned papers her (krever innlogging)

Conflicting Professional Duties and Blameworthiness

Andreas Eriksen

It is often claimed that professionals are subject to conflicting duties in their codes of ethics. Some hold that the duty that is overridden by another duty will persist and taint the agent, even if there was no better solution in the circumstances. This paper challenges this “residual obligation” view of professional role morality. It proceeds by discussing two competing views. The “unity view” argues that we are warranted in assuming principled coherence among professional role obligations. Hence, there can be no residual obligations that are impossible to discharge and no cause for moral regret. The paper shows why this view is superior with regards to the conditions of blame or guilt, but also why its idea of unity among obligations is implausible. The “responsibility view,” on the other hand, argues that there can be genuine conflicts, but cases of inevitable conflict can generate valid excuses that cancel the grounds for blame. The paper argues that the responsibility view is the most adequate interpretation of the moral situation of professionals.

Informed Consent and Intentional Nondisclosure in Japan
– A Kantian Approach

Jon V. Hugaas

Western Norway University of Applied Science

Abstract: This paper concerns the practice of intentional nondisclosure of medical information in Japan and the promotion of nondisclosure as a medical ethical ideal on the basis of values that are claimed to be inherent to traditional Japanese culture. It deals with the conflict of values between the traditional paradigm of benevolent paternalism and a liberal paradigm of informed consent as competing or mutually exclusive paradigms of medical ethics in Japan. The conflict is approached from a Kantian perspective of morals with an emphasis on Kant’s thoughts on contract and consent. On the basis of Kant’s distinction between external and internal freedom a strategy is suggested for dissolution of the conflict between the principle of individual autonomy and traditional Japanese values in medical ethics and practice.

Keywords: Japanese medical ethics; intentional nondisclosure; informed consent; philosophy of right; Immanuel Kant.

Professional Codes as Moralistic Nudging

Ainar Petersen Miyata

As a rule, professional codes are not coercively enforced, and neither do they have a structure of argumentative, rational persuasion. Since professional codes are at least putatively intended to affect behavior, this could qualify them for counting as the type of behavioral influence known as nudging. Because their intended behavioral effect (again) at least putatively is to make people behave more ethically, we could classify them as belonging to a category we might call moralistic nudges. But nudging is sometimes seen as a morally problematic type of influence: nudging is a form of manipulation, and, in the relevant circumstances, manipulation is wrong. I argue that the argument from manipulation, if it holds for other types of nudging, will also hold for nudging in the form of professional codes. Indeed, moralistic nudging might actually be a more problematic kind of nudging than other important types of nudging.

This surprising result leaves us with two alternatives: either, we accept that influencing behavior through professional codes can be wrong, or we take it as a reductio of the argument from manipulation.

”Klar til strid!”
formelle normer og profesjonsidentitet blant norske og
svenske soldater med kamperfaring fra Afghanistan

Gudmund Waaler

Under den kalde krigen ble norske og svenske soldater trent opp til å forsvare nasjonale interesser. Forsvaret var en integrert del av samfunnet. Den almene verneplikten nedtonet det profesjonelle preget. Soldatene skulle forsvare våre grenser og våre verdier mot en eventuell aggressiv inntrenger. Oppdraget i Afghanistan har på mange måter betydd et paradigmeskifte for profesjonsidentiteten. Soldatene er profesjonelle krigere og brukes først og fremst som et politisk virkemiddel. Soldatene er ikke hjemlandsforsvarere men deltar i et innsatsforsvar. Mange soldater har vært i ekstremt stressende situasjoner, mistet kamerater og tatt liv i kamp. Det preger deres forståelse av profesjonen og danner basis for fremveksten av et sett uformelle normer i soldatgruppen.

I dette paperet gir vi en beskrivelse av den nye profesjonsidentiteten som har vokst frem blant norske og svenske soldater i Afghanistan. Vi går så videre for å undersøke: Hvilke (uformelle) normer har soldatene som har deltatt i kamp utviklet?

Materialet for denne studien består av 29 intervjuer av soldater (hvorav 10 svenske) med en rekke ulike funksjoner. Sentralt i det norske materialet står tre cases der norske soldater har deltatt aktivt i kamp og blitt skadet. I en av situasjonene døde fire soldater.

Vi har funnet en sterk felles profesjonsidentitet blant soldater som har vært i kamp og løst oppdrag sammen. Soldatene oppfatter seg selv som profesjonelle krigere satt til å løse oppdrag de ikke oppfatter som ideelle. De har liten tro på fred i Afghanistan. For å kunne takle skarpe og farlige situasjoner har de utviklet et sett med uformelle normer som først og fremst handler om lojalitet og samhold i (soldat)gruppen. En soldat skal være klar til strid, ansvarsbevisst, villig til å ta en kule for kameraten, preget av god korpsånd, vise følelser og vise respekt for motstander.

Soldatene har ikke utviklet en aggressiv kultur, men har fokus på å forsvare liv.

Sentrale begreper (Key words): Militær profesjonsidentitet, krigerkultur, hjemlandsforsvarer, uformelle normer, kampmoral, kodeks.

The Core Curriculum
– Interpretations and Stories About an Essential Document
for the Norwegian School

Associate Professor Kristin Lofthus Hope, Western Norway University of Applied Science

The document “core curriculum” was introduced to the Norwegian school in 1993 as part of the new reforms introduced by the labour party government. The reforms of the upper secondary school in 1994 and the reform of 1997 in primary and lower secondary school introduced the “core curriculum”. It is a document that give voice to a vision of what the Norwegian school should cover and be about (Engelsen 2007). The document is meant to elaborate on the statement of legislative purpose in the Education Act. Expanding on the ethical principles, knowledge- and learning objective in addition to the main goals for the education of pupils in primary, lower and upper secondary school. The document elaborates on the main objectives for the school and gives a description of the responsibility of the school. When introduced, one of the ambitions was that it would give directions to the goals and tie together the different curriculums.

The text comprising the core curriculum is rich in words, detailed and comprehensive. The document is divided in 7 paragraphs, and some of the same questions are discussed throughout the text highlighting different perspectives. It was the Minister of Education, Gudmund Hernes, who was in charge of the creation of the core curriculum and there are some myths connected to the origin. One of the myths is that the minister wrote the document at his cabin in solitude. Trippestad (2011) characterizes the text and the type of governmentality as command humanism. The regime of command humanism incorporates belief in and strategy of centrally planning, governing public opinion, structuring the personality and form of individual motives through religion and the humanities. To reform the school using command humanism was a rather controversial new strategy, all the time reforms were normally carried out in a piecemeal fashion and in a corporative model (Rolf et al. 1993; Telhaug 1995). Although the core curriculum was introduced in a rather forceful manner, has it had influence on the school system? Teachers are the most prominent professional group at school level, and have they internalized the core values and using the core curriculum in carrying out teaching? A study carried out about use and thoughts about the core curriculum among teachers will be used to examine teachers own experience with the core curriculum. Could it be reasonable to conclude that if teachers claim to have internalized and use the core curriculum, then it has had an impact on the school system for over 25 years?

First edition of the Reform 97 (L97) curriculum was a large book that presented the core curriculum with many illustrations of classical paintings, pictures and drawings that illustrated the content of the text. These artworks are not present today when the core curriculum can be downloaded from the Norwegian Directory for Education. So the presentation of the core curriculum has changed from the introduction, but is it still relevant as an expression of the school, its visions, and the ethical principles?

The core curriculum was not changed during the introduction of the Knowledge Promotion reform in 2006 for the 10-year compulsory school, but a shorter document was presented as Principal for the Curriculum with the purpose to summarize the content of the other documents regulating the sector. Ministry of Education and Research has started a work to change the core curriculum, and the new text is presented and have been sent out for comments with a hearing deadline 12th of June this year. During the preparation work to formulate a new core curriculum text, the Ministry commissioned a study about the teachers own experiences. The study of use and thoughts about the core curriculum was done among primary, lower- and secondary school teachers during the spring of 2015 on commission from the Ministry of Education. In total 44 teachers were interviewed during eight focus group interviews lasting from 90 minutes up to 120. From each school type there are two schools represented (two from primary, two from lower secondary, two from specialization in general studies and two from vocational training), in addition the schools are geographical spread, both smaller schools in the periphery and larger city schools participated. The eight schools are located within two county municipalities.

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